Difference between revisions of "Millennium Development Goals"

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The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) option is located under the Specialized Display option, which is in turn located under the Display option on the main menu. The MDGs option is also located under the [http://www.du.edu/ifs/help/use/repeated/mainmenu.html Main Menu Map] options.
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= Millennium Development Goals =
  
The MDGs are a set of 8 goals which were adopted in 2000 and are supposed to be met by participating countries by 2015. The goals are the following:
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The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) option is located under the Specialized Displays for Issues option, which is in turn located under the Display option on the main menu. The MDGs option is also located among the [http://www.du.edu/ifs/help/use-online/display/mainmap.html Main Menu Map Pop-up] options, a pop-up list box shown after a click on a country from the map on the Main Menu window.
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The MDGs are a set of 8 goals which were adopted by and for the global community in 2000. The goals are the following:
  
 
*Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
 
*Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
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*Develop a global partnership for development
 
*Develop a global partnership for development
  
Each goal has a target that is in turn measured by one or more indicators. For instance, the target of the goal to eradicate extreme poverty is to halve the proportion of people whose income is less than $1 per day, which is measured in by the indicator of purchasing power parity (PPP).
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Each goal has a target that is in turn measured by one or more indicators. For instance, the target of the goal to eradicate extreme poverty is to halve the proportion of people whose income is less than $1 per day, which is measured in by the indicator of purchasing power parity (PPP), between 1990 and the 2015 target year for the original MDGs.
  
To use the MDGs option, first select the goal to display. Next, select the target, and then the indicator. Experimenting with the various targets and indicators will help familiarize the user to the relationships between the goal, targets, and indicators. The user should then select the [http://www.du.edu/ifs/help/use/repeated/countryregion.html country/region or group] to display. Click the Use Groups option in the heading to switch from countries to groups. Finally, select the run file with which to forecast the selected indicator. The one to use first is probably the Working File, but the user can begin with any of the available run files.
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To use the MDGs option, first select the goal to display (the default is Poverty and Hunger). Next, select the target (the default is Target 1, which for that goal is 50 percent reduction in poverty rate), and then the indicator variable from IFs forecasting (the default is the IFs forecast of poverty rate using its log-normal forecasting approach). Experimenting with the various targets and indicators will help familiarize the user to the relationships between the goal, targets, and indicators. So, too, the sub-options under About MDG will help explain the MDG goals, targets, and indicators. The user should also select the [http://www.du.edu/ifs/help/use-online/repeated/countryregion.html country/region or group]to display from the drop-down box just below the menu (the default is Afghanistan). Click the Switch option and then Use Groups in the heading if you wish to switch from countries to groups. Finally, select the run file with which to forecast the selected indicator from the box in the lower left (the default is the Working File). As you make your selections a graphic like the one below will repaint. Below the only change of default selections was for country. If you prefer a table to the graphic, select the radio button for Data in the Display option box.
 
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At this point, a chart should appear like the one below.
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[[File:Useifs24.PNG|RTENOTITLE]]
 
[[File:Useifs24.PNG|RTENOTITLE]]
  
The box at the top left of the picture shows the selected goal, target, and indicator. The top right box in this case is green, which means that the country/region or group is making fast progress towards meeting the MDG. This color of this box will change according to whether the country is making progress towards meeting the MDG and the speed of that progress (green for fast progress, blue for moderate, yellow for slow), whether the country is regressing from the MDG (red for regression), or whether no change is made in relation to the goal (purple for no progress). Next, the user can select to display the data as a chart (the default setting) or to simply view the data.
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If there are an historical data associated with the selection set, the chart will display then as blue bars. The graphic will also contain a series of lines. These lines represent the current trajectory of the particular indicator (red) built from the historical data bars as much as usual, the goal path from 1990 to 2015 for the indicator (green), and the IFs forecast from the base year forward past 2015 to 2030 (purple).
  
The chart will usually display blue bars, which represent historic data, and a series of lines. These lines represent the current trajectory of the particular indicator (red), the goal for the indicator (green) and then the forecast, which will come in a variety of colors. The user can choose to display the chart monochromatically by selecting the Monochrome option under the Graphic heading at the top of the screen. The user can also choose to view the earliest available data for the selected indicator or to view the latest, options which are both located under the Display Options heading. By selecting Using estimated historic line that may not meet forecast line, which is also located under the Display Options heading, the user can view an unadjusted historical trajectory; selecting the option Overriding the base year value historic line with forecast value will force the historic trajectory and forecasted data to meet.
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The user can potentially extend the display of historical data to view the earliest available data for the selected indicator or to view the latest, options which are both located under the Display Options menu. Under Display Options, the user can toggle between the default option of 'Overriding the base year value historic line with forecast value' selected which forces the historic trajectory and forecasts to meet or an unadjusted historical trajectory by selecting 'Using estimated historical line that may not meet forecast line.'
  
Several options are located in the heading. Clicking on Continue returns the user to the previous screen. The File option allows the user to export or print the file. Clicking on Global Picture causes a dialog box to appear, which contains an option titled Situation Map. The Situation Map is similar to the [http://www.du.edu/ifs/help/use/data/worldmap.html World Map]. The next option is Causality, that, when selected, will display the particular drivers that affect and are affected by the variable in question. To learn more about the MDGs, select one of the options under the About MDG heading.
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Several other options are located in the menu. Clicking on Continue returns the user to the previous screen. Clicking on Global Picture/Situation Map calls up a new window with a global map showing the latest historical values for the target variable (thus the contemporary situation); the map is very similar to the [http://www.du.edu/ifs/help/use-online/data/worldmap.html World Map]. Continue will take you back to the MDG form. The next option is Causality - when selected, it will display the IFs model drivers that affect and are affected by the forecasted variable. Under Switch is a Compare sub-option that allows the comparison of two countries, the one you have selected from the drop-down box in the upper right and one that you select from the list box of countries in the lower right; make sure that you select a country in the lower right before you select Switch/Compare (you can actually select up to three countries from the list box in the lower right allowing comparison in total of up to four countries).
  
 
= <span style="font-size:xx-large;">Poverty Level Display</span> =
 
= <span style="font-size:xx-large;">Poverty Level Display</span> =
  
This feature can be accessed from the main menu of IFs by clicking on Display, then Specialized Display and then Poverty Level Display.
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This feature can be accessed from the main menu of IFs by clicking on Display, then Specialized Displays for Issues and then Poverty Level Display.
  
This display feature is useful for visually displaying forecasts of populations who live under a certain monetary constraint within a geographically bound region. For example, if you would like to see a forecast of people living in China who live under $1 a day, simply use the default settings of the "Population with income less than $ ___ per day, log normal computation," box, then select China from the Regions box and click the Add button to place it into the display box at the bottom of this display.
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[[File:Useifs25.PNG|RTENOTITLE]]
  
Then, choose to visually display this information as either a Table, a Line Graph or a Bar Graph.
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This display is useful for visually displaying forecasts of the number or percentage of people who live below a daily poverty level that you can specify with great flexibility. You can also specify an income range and see the number or percent of people within that range, for instance to assess the size of the middle class over time. Further, you can select a percentile share of the population (e.g. the poorest 10 percent which is the default), and see over time the income that defines the level below which that population segment lives. The three radio buttons in the center-right of the form choose which of those displays you want to see and allow you in their boxes to specify the associated values. When either the first or second radio option is specified, a menu option appears that allows you to toggle between looking at the number of people or the percentage of a population.
  
It is also possible to change certain features of the display by selecting the Display Format button at the top of this menu. By selecting these options, it is possible to format your chart or graph for presentation and also change the time horizon of the display to fit your forecasting needs.
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The form has default options for geography (Afghanistan), scenario (the Working File), and the radio button (Poverty level at $1.25 per day (Using Millions of People). Basic use of the form involves keeping or changing any of these options, touching the Add button (which places this and perhaps other selections in a status box) and then touching the desired display format button (Table, Line Graph, or Bar Graph).
 
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Next, it may be of interest to change the Using Countries/Regions and Using Groups toggle. This allows you to see a forecast of how many people live under certain monetary constraints in differently constructed geographically bound regions. The last toggle on this screen allows displays to be either in millions of people or in a percentage of population.
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[[File:Useifs25.PNG|RTENOTITLE]]
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However, while $1 per day has been a gold standard for poverty measurement for many years, rising incomes have made it necessary to look at populations who live under a higher set of monetary constraints. For example, it is possible to change the default $1 setting to a higher setting, like $5 per day. Additionally, it is possible to display the nth poorest percentile in a country by selecting the Poverty Percentile button and then changing the percentage located in the box.
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More extended options are available on the menu. Under Group Options you can change the geographical options from countries/regions to Groups, G-Lists, or Decomposed Groups. Display Format sub-options allow you to change elements of displays such as the title of graphs or the display interval of tables and bar graphs. You can also change time horizon for displays.

Revision as of 13:10, 24 July 2017

Millennium Development Goals

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) option is located under the Specialized Displays for Issues option, which is in turn located under the Display option on the main menu. The MDGs option is also located among the Main Menu Map Pop-up options, a pop-up list box shown after a click on a country from the map on the Main Menu window.

The MDGs are a set of 8 goals which were adopted by and for the global community in 2000. The goals are the following:

  • Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
  • Achieve universal primary education
  • Promote gender equality and empower women
  • Reduce child mortality
  • Improve maternal health
  • Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
  • Ensure environmental sustainability
  • Develop a global partnership for development

Each goal has a target that is in turn measured by one or more indicators. For instance, the target of the goal to eradicate extreme poverty is to halve the proportion of people whose income is less than $1 per day, which is measured in by the indicator of purchasing power parity (PPP), between 1990 and the 2015 target year for the original MDGs.

To use the MDGs option, first select the goal to display (the default is Poverty and Hunger). Next, select the target (the default is Target 1, which for that goal is 50 percent reduction in poverty rate), and then the indicator variable from IFs forecasting (the default is the IFs forecast of poverty rate using its log-normal forecasting approach). Experimenting with the various targets and indicators will help familiarize the user to the relationships between the goal, targets, and indicators. So, too, the sub-options under About MDG will help explain the MDG goals, targets, and indicators. The user should also select the country/region or groupto display from the drop-down box just below the menu (the default is Afghanistan). Click the Switch option and then Use Groups in the heading if you wish to switch from countries to groups. Finally, select the run file with which to forecast the selected indicator from the box in the lower left (the default is the Working File). As you make your selections a graphic like the one below will repaint. Below the only change of default selections was for country. If you prefer a table to the graphic, select the radio button for Data in the Display option box.

RTENOTITLE

If there are an historical data associated with the selection set, the chart will display then as blue bars. The graphic will also contain a series of lines. These lines represent the current trajectory of the particular indicator (red) built from the historical data bars as much as usual, the goal path from 1990 to 2015 for the indicator (green), and the IFs forecast from the base year forward past 2015 to 2030 (purple).

The user can potentially extend the display of historical data to view the earliest available data for the selected indicator or to view the latest, options which are both located under the Display Options menu. Under Display Options, the user can toggle between the default option of 'Overriding the base year value historic line with forecast value' selected which forces the historic trajectory and forecasts to meet or an unadjusted historical trajectory by selecting 'Using estimated historical line that may not meet forecast line.'

Several other options are located in the menu. Clicking on Continue returns the user to the previous screen. Clicking on Global Picture/Situation Map calls up a new window with a global map showing the latest historical values for the target variable (thus the contemporary situation); the map is very similar to the World Map. Continue will take you back to the MDG form. The next option is Causality - when selected, it will display the IFs model drivers that affect and are affected by the forecasted variable. Under Switch is a Compare sub-option that allows the comparison of two countries, the one you have selected from the drop-down box in the upper right and one that you select from the list box of countries in the lower right; make sure that you select a country in the lower right before you select Switch/Compare (you can actually select up to three countries from the list box in the lower right allowing comparison in total of up to four countries).

Poverty Level Display

This feature can be accessed from the main menu of IFs by clicking on Display, then Specialized Displays for Issues and then Poverty Level Display.

RTENOTITLE

This display is useful for visually displaying forecasts of the number or percentage of people who live below a daily poverty level that you can specify with great flexibility. You can also specify an income range and see the number or percent of people within that range, for instance to assess the size of the middle class over time. Further, you can select a percentile share of the population (e.g. the poorest 10 percent which is the default), and see over time the income that defines the level below which that population segment lives. The three radio buttons in the center-right of the form choose which of those displays you want to see and allow you in their boxes to specify the associated values. When either the first or second radio option is specified, a menu option appears that allows you to toggle between looking at the number of people or the percentage of a population.

The form has default options for geography (Afghanistan), scenario (the Working File), and the radio button (Poverty level at $1.25 per day (Using Millions of People). Basic use of the form involves keeping or changing any of these options, touching the Add button (which places this and perhaps other selections in a status box) and then touching the desired display format button (Table, Line Graph, or Bar Graph).

More extended options are available on the menu. Under Group Options you can change the geographical options from countries/regions to Groups, G-Lists, or Decomposed Groups. Display Format sub-options allow you to change elements of displays such as the title of graphs or the display interval of tables and bar graphs. You can also change time horizon for displays.